Foreign Affairsの日本: 南洋統治(1922年)

Pocket

世界で最も影響力のある国際問題専門誌がフォーリン・アフェアーズ(Foreign Affairs)です。1922に創刊され、いまは隔月で発行しています。1991年から2008年まで『中央公論』や『論座』で邦訳されていました。今はフォーリン・アフェアーズ・ジャパンという会社が引き継いで、英語論文を翻訳しているようです。

0

Foreign Affairsに掲載される論文は内容だけでなく、文章の質も高く、英語リーディング力の向上を目指している人はぜひトライしてください。専門誌とは言いながらも、一般の人向けに書かれているので、特別な専門知識がなくても英語力さえあれば論文の内容を理解できます。定期購読の料金は1年間でPRINT+DIGITALが$68.00、PRINTだけが$62.00、DIGITALだけが$27.00です。学生の場合はもっと安くなって、それぞれ$60.95、$54.95、$19.95となります。PRINTとは印刷物、DIGITALとはインターネットでの閲覧のことを指します。わたしはDIGITALで契約しています。パソコンを通じての方が、知らない英単語や事項をネットで調べながら論文を読めるからです。また、PRINTの年間契約はそれこそ1年分の論文しか読めませんが、DIGITAL契約だと過去論文をすべて閲覧することができます。だからお勧めはDIGITAL契約です。

年間購読の契約はクレジットカードでおこないますが、アメリカの会社に対してクレジットカードを使う際は一つ大事な注意事項があります。自動更新のところが多いので、こちらから契約解除の通告をしないと、1年契約のつもりでも勝手に年間契約を毎年更新することがあります。Foreign Affairsも自動更新だったか覚えていませんが、何にせよ購読を中途でやめるときは、その旨を伝えないといけません。それだけを気をつければ、$27.00の額で1922年から発表された論文をすべて読めるのですから非常にお得です。

2か月毎に発行されるので新しい論文を読むだけでも大変ですが、DIGITAL契約がすごいのは初版からの論文すべてを読めることです。いわばForeign Affairsは読むことで90年以上のアメリカ外交の縮図を理解することができます。戦前の日本についてアメリカ人はどういう態度をとり、判断をしてきたかもわかるります。そこで過去論文を検索して、日本に関する論文を読んでみることにしました。対象はSEARCHでJAPANをチェックし、JAPANという単語が10回以上出ている論文と、5~10回出ていて論文の中でとくに日本に対して意見を述べている論文です。発行年の1922年には2つの論文が日本について言及していました。1つ目がBlakesleeの論文です。

George H. Blakeslee (September 1922), “The Mandates of the Pacific

第一次世界大戦後、国際連盟規約第22条に基づき敗戦国のドイツが統治していた太平洋諸島をアメリカ・日本・イギリス・オーストラリア・ニュージーランドが「委任統治」(mandate)することになり、日本は赤道より北の南洋諸島の委任統治を任されました(ちなみにこれらの地域は太平洋戦争時にアメリカ軍が占領し、1947年アメリカの太平洋諸島信託統治領へ移行します)。委任統治領はA式、B式、C式の3タイプありますが、太平洋諸島はすべてC式でした

A式(旧トルコ領の中東地域)  「文明化」が進んでおり住民のレベルも高く、自立が可能
B式(旧ドイツ領の中央アフリカ)  「文明化」が進んでおらず住民のレベルも低く、当面独立は不可能
C式(旧ドイツ領の南西アフリカや太平洋地域)    「文明社会」から遠く離れ、住民のレベルは低く、地理的環境が悪くて人口も少なく、独立はまず不可能

このうちA式では、受任国は独立まで援助や助言を与えるものとされ、住民には受任国とは別の国籍を与えられた。一方でB式やC式では、受任国は委任統治領を自国の構成領域の一部(というより実質的には植民地)として扱うことが認められ、住民にはいずれの国籍も与えられず(つまり無国籍者)、受任国には奴隷売買の禁止や先住民への酒や武器の販売禁止、軍事基地の建設禁止や先住民への軍事教育の禁止、信仰の自由の保障などが義務付けられた。わかりやすい言葉で言えば「文明人にはほど遠い原住民たちに酒や武器を与えず、キリスト教の福音で教化すべし」と国連で決めたということ。また受任国には毎年国連へ行政年報を提出して審査を受けることが規定された。


1. 南洋群島(日)
2. ニューギニア(豪)
3. ナウル(豪、NZ、英)
4. 西サモア(NZ)

日本の委任統治領となったカロリン諸島、マーシャル諸島、マリアナ諸島(グアム島は除く)ら南洋諸島は、太平洋戦争での激戦区となります。

0

There are four distinct Mandates in the Pacific. Japan administers the Carolines, Marshalls and Marianas (except Guam), all north of the Equator; Australia, the former German part of New Guinea and the Bismarck Archipelago, with adjoining islands, all south of the Equator; New Zealand, the western islands of the Samoan group; and the British Empire, the rich phosphate island of Nauru. With the exception of Samoa, which is in the south central Pacific, the Mandates comprise a large bloc in the west central part of the Pacific, east and southeast of the Philippines. Their land area is greater than that of England, Scotland and Wales combined, although their estimated population is small, hardly 500,000, and of this total, just before the War, the whites numbered less than 2,000. The chief importance of the islands lies in their strategic and naval value; they include one of the best possible commercial and naval bases in the Pacific–Rabaul in New Britain–and have particular significance for any possible conflict between the United States and Japan. From an economic viewpoint, they produce large amounts of copra, and contain some of the richest phosphate islands in the world. The full extent of their economic importance is still undetermined; while they are valuable tropical possessions, it is certain that they can never rank with such islands as Java or the Philippines.
コプラ(copra)とは、コヤシの果実の白色脂肪質の胚乳を乾燥したものです。マーガリンや石けんの材料になるそうです。委任統治領の面積は大英帝国本土よりも大きいが、人口は全部合わせても50万人に足らないと書かれていますね。

At the opening of the war, in 1914, all of these islands were easily captured, for they were entirely undefended; they had no forts, no garrisons, and only a few native police. At the suggestion of the British Government, Australia and New Zealand occupied New Guinea and Samoa respectively. It was the original intention of the British Government to have Australia seize also the strategic points in the Carolines, Marshalls and Marianas, but Australia delayed, and when its Expeditionary Force was organized and ready to sail, word was received from London that an agreement had been made by which Japan would occupy the islands north of the Equator.
大英帝国はオーストラリアに、カロリン諸島、マーシャル諸島、マリアナ諸島を占領するよう指示したが出航が遅れ、その隙を突いて日本は南洋諸島は日本が占領するという合意を大英帝国ととりつけたそうです。

At the Peace Conference, when the Supreme Council discussed the disposition of the German colonies, and President Wilson urged the mandate idea, Premier Lloyd George accepted the principle for those German colonies which had been conquered by British Imperial forces, which included none of the Pacific islands, but the Premiers of Australia, New Zealand and Southwest Africa, and the representative of Japan, insisted vigorously that their countries should be permitted to annex the territories which they then held under military occupation. This claim to treat a large part of the German colonies as spoils of war led to one of the crises of the Peace Conference. The delicate situation was met by Mr. Lloyd George who called a meeting of the Dominion Premiers and, after a heated discussion, induced them to accept a compromise proposal by which the Mandates would be divided into three classes, and class “C,” containing the Pacific islands, would be “administered under the laws of the Mandatory as integral portions of its territory, subject to the safeguards . . . in the interests of the indigenous population.” This plan was as near to outright annexation as could well be secured under the form of a Mandate; but the compromise was accepted by President Wilson, and later became Article 22 of the Covenant of the League in the Treaty of Versailles.

After the United States had failed to ratify the Treaty of Versailles, the remaining Principal Powers, without the official consent or knowledge of the American Government, formally awarded the “C” Mandates, the Pacific islands and Southwest Africa, and drew up proposed terms under which they should be administered. The Council of the League of Nations confirmed these “C” Mandates December 17, 1920.
第一次世界大戦終結後、旧ドイツ領の太平洋諸島はC式を実施する経過が述べられています。 パリ会議で、日本・ニュージーランド・オーストラリアらは旧ドイツ領諸島を戦利品(spoils of war)として併合することを要求。しかし、それは「民族自決」の原則に反するので妥協案として太平洋諸島をC式の委任統治にすることが決定。

According to the terms of these Mandates, which are identic, the Mandatory’s full power of administration and legislation is limited by important conditions. Each is required to “promote to the utmost the material and moral well being and the social progress” of the natives; to control the traffic in arms and ammunition; to ensure freedom of conscience and worship and to respect the rights of missionaries; and to make an annual report of its administration to the Council of the League of Nations. There are also certain things prohibited: The slave trade; forced labor “except for essential public works and services, and then only for adequate remuneration;” “the supply of intoxicating spirits and beverages to the natives;” “the military training of the natives, otherwise than for purposes of internal police and the local defence of the territory;” and the erection of fortifications and the establishment of military or naval bases. No provision was made in the “C” Mandates for the open door in the mandated territory, as was done in the case of the “A” and “B” Mandates.
「委任統治」での行われるべき事と禁止事項が述べられています。

0

ブレイクスリーはこの論文で日本・ニュージーランド・オーストラリア・英国の委任統治の状況について分析しています。 以下、日本の委任統治の状況とアメリカとの交渉について。
The Japanese Mandate, including all of the former German islands north of the Equator, comprises many hundreds of islands, some of them rocky peaks of volcanic origin, but the greater number low-lying, tiny coral islets. The total land area is less than that of the state of Rhode Island. The population is small–52,222 according to the Japanese census of 1920. The natives vary greatly, from the barbarians of the Western Carolines to the civilized and Christianized inhabitants of the Marshalls. The economic value of the islands is not great; their trade, at its height under the Germans, was less than $2,000,000 a year, scarcely one-ninth of that of such a small and backward country as Salvador. Copra is the chief product; phosphate deposits are worked upon Angaur, to the annual value of approximately $200,000 to $400,000, and exist upon others of the Western Carolines; and sugar is now raised profitably upon one of the Marianas. But the island products, while some of them, especially copra, may be considerably increased, will probably never be very great in amount.

After months of popular discussion and diplomatic negotiation, the United States and Japan agreed upon a treaty, signed February 11, 1922, and now in force, which settles this Yap-Mandate dispute. As to Yap, the United States is given exactly the same rights as Japan in the island so far as relates to electrical communication–that is, to the landing and the operation of cables and to radio, although it is stipulated that so long as Japan shall maintain an adequate radio telegraphic station, with equal charges, the United States will not exercise its right to establish its own radio station in the island.

As to the Mandate as a whole, the United States gives its formal consent that Japan shall administer these islands and Japan, in return, agrees that the United States is to enjoy all the rights named in the Mandate for the benefit of the members of the League of Nations, and, in addition, certain further rights not specifically guaranteed to the members of the League: that is, American missionaries may own property, erect religious buildings, and open schools throughout the islands; vested American property rights are to be respected; and existing treaties between the United States and Japan are made applicable to the Mandated islands. By the latter provision, due to the liberal character of the present American-Japanese Treaty of 1911, American citizens have the right, upon the same terms as the Japanese, “to enter, travel and reside” in the Mandated islands in order “to carry on trade . . . and generally to do anything incident to or necessary for trade.” They are also guaranteed the most favored nation treatment in tariff duties and “in all that concerns commerce and navigation.”

The Treaty should satisfy both Japan and the United States, for each secures its essential needs and desires. Japan has gained a clear title as Mandatory. The United States has obtained: (1) equal cable rights in Yap; (2) a definite guarantee, given both in the original Mandate and repeated in the present treaty, that “no military or naval bases shall be established or fortifications erected in the territory,” a provision which, in largest part, does away with the menace of these islands remaining in Japan’s possession; (3) protection for American missions and American traders; and (4) a recognition of its rights as one of the original trustees of the Mandate–shown especially by Japan’s agreement to send annually to the United States a duplicate of the report on its administration which is to be made to the Council of the League of Nations.

以下、第一次世界大戦中に日本が南洋諸島を占領してからの話。
From October, 1914, when Japanese forces first occupied these islands, they remained under the control of the Japanese Navy Department until April 1, 1922, when a purely civil South Seas Government came into operation, which is responsible directly to the Imperial Cabinet. The Japanese undertook the administration of the islands with commendable earnestness and energy. Experts and high officials visited the archipelagos in large numbers in the early months; the native chiefs were taken on visits to Japan; roads were built, additional cocoanut trees planted, navigation buoys placed, surveys made; a regular subsidized steamship service to the islands was established; and trade and commerce with Japan were furthered. Due to wartime regulations, the government was able to give Japanese a virtual monopoly of trade and commerce. The Germans were all sent away, other foreign traders discouraged, commerce in general restricted to Japanese ships, and all foreigners forbidden to enter or leave the islands without special permission, usually difficult or impossible to obtain. Under these conditions Japanese commercial companies established themselves in the islands and invested considerable capital, and the number of Japanese increased from 83, before the war, to 3,671 in 1920.

In military and naval matters the Japanese have completely lived up to the provisions of the Mandate. They have built no fortifications, established no naval bases, and have not trained the natives for military purposes. But, as they have a right to do, they have established radio stations, at least eight of them, four being powerful enough to communicate with Japan, have begun experiments with aeroplane flights, and are maintaining a small police force numbering less than a hundred.

ブレイクスリーは日本の委任統治を割とポジティブに評価しています。とくに初等教育を重視され、8歳から15歳のすべての子供に無料で義務教育が課されます。その多くは寄宿学校です
The most striking feature of the Japanese administration is the establishment of elementary schools. The Germans had no government schools, leaving the education of the natives entirely to American and German missions; but the Japanese Government, with much the same spirit which actuated the American Administration in the Philippines, is extending elementary schools as rapidly as possible and requiring the attendance, wherever the schools are available, of all children from 8 to 15 years of age. Many are boarding schools, to which the children are brought from the nearby islands and educated free of all charge under the almost constant influence of the Japanese teachers. Wherever government schools have been established, the school authorities have refused to allow native children of school age to attend the mission schools.

でもネガティブな事も記しています。
The Japanese administration as a whole has been energetic, progressive–as is shown by their schools and by their care for the health of the natives–and in general fairly efficient. On the other hand, there has been over-administration, a too careful supervision of details, too many officials, occasional annoyances and injustice due to petty naval officials, and an attempt to hustle the simple natives too fast.

この論文の英文はほれぼれするほどの模範的な英語です。大学の英語リーディングのクラスで使って欲しいですね。

0

1922年には日本に言及した論文がもうひとつ出ています。
Stanley K. Hornbeck, Principles and Policies in Regard to China
です。1922年、ワシントン会議での九カ国条約(米・英・仏・伊・蘭・中国・ベルギー、ポルトガル、日本)で中国における門戸開放・機会均等・主権尊重の原則の尊重が定められました。この論文ではその後の中国での展望が語られていますが、とくに日本の対中政策についてとりあげた論文ではありません。

2月 2, 2014 · Pukuro · No Comments
Posted in: ☆戦前の日本

Leave a Reply