インタビュー・質問紙調査における個人情報の保護: anonymousかconfidentialか

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半構造化面接(semi-structured interview)などを実施する際に、質問紙調査(questionnaire survey)に参加する人がとくに気にするのは自分のことが特定されるのではないかということです。実施者にはそうすることのメリットが何もないため過剰な心配と感じがちですが、インタビューを受ける人にとってはよくわからないことなので本当に大丈夫かどうかつい不安になっています。そのため、質問紙調査を実施する際には必ず、個人情報を外部に漏らさないことを参加者に確約します。

(例) 質問紙調査に参加した学生には、アンケートは無記名であり個人は特定されないこと、成績には一切関連しないことを書面にて説明し、同意が得られた72名を分析対象とした。」

ではこのような個人情報の保護を英語でなんと表現すればよいのでしょうか。最初に思いつくのがanonymousという形容詞です。名詞ではanonymityとなりますが、英辞郎では以下のように説明されています。

anonymous

【形】

匿名の、名前を伏せた[明かさない]、無名の、無記名の、無著者名の、作者不明の◆【反】onymous◆【略】anon
・The news article detailed the mayor’s bribery scandal quoting anonymous sources. : その新聞記事は、市長の収賄スキャンダルの詳細を匿名の情報源を引用して報じた。
・The investigation was conducted based on interviews with anonymous police sources. : 匿名の警察情報提供者への事情聴取に基づいて調査が行われた。

実際、日本語で書かれた論文の英文要旨をみると、anonymousという表現がよく使われています。

しかし、英語論文にはanonymousだけではなく、confidentialという単語もよく出てきます。confidentialは英辞郎によれば、

confidential

【形】

  1. 〔行動や通信が〕秘密の、内密の、親展の
    ・I wrote a confidential letter to him. : 彼宛の親展の手紙を書いた。
  2. 〔情報が〕部外秘の、国家機密の
  3. 〔人が〕信任が厚い、何でも任せられる、腹心の
  4. 〔行動が〕うち解けた、相手を信用しきった、秘密を打ち明けるような

とのこと。2の意味が個人情報保護と関連していそうです。

ではanonymousとconfidentialのどちらを使ってもよいかとなると、そういうわけでありません。Google Scholarて”anonymous and confidential””confidential and anonymous”を検索すると多くの文献が検索されます。

例えば以下の文章。

Prior to completing the 129 question survey, all students were assured that their participation was voluntary, anonymous, and confidential

Researchers met groups of 10 to 40 prisoners. The survey was explained, and prisoners were
advised that the survey was voluntary, anonymous, and confidential.

Subjects were recruited through a variety of advertisements, and participation was voluntary,
anonymous, and confidential.

これらの論文の著者はanonymousとconfidentialについてどういう意味の使い分けをしているのでしょうか。

anonymous

anonymousはまったくの匿名調査で使います。つまり調査を実施する研究者も誰が調査に参加しているのかわかりません。例えばオンライン調査の多くがanonymousに行われます。

An individual’s involvement in a research project can be described as anonymous if it is impossible to know whether or not an individual participated in the study. For example, participation in an online survey that cannot be linked in any way to the individual would be considered anonymous.

Data are anonymous if no one, not even the researcher, can connect the data to the individual who provided it. No identifying information is collected from the individual.

When the term “anonymous” is used, a person gives no personal information about himself/herself and should not be asked for specific personal information that would give his/her identify away. 

ただし、anonymityは程度問題であり、常に100%情報のソースがわからないといけないわけではありません。

Anonymity can be conceptualized as “the degree to which the identity of a message source is unknown and unspecified; thus, the less knowledge one has about the source and the harder it is to specify who the source is among possible options, the more anonymity exists.”

anonymousな調査では、調査者は調査参加者の個人情報を特定不可能です。これは程度問題ではありません。では、anonymousな調査でだれが個人情報を手に入れることができるかというと、調査に参加した本人です。例えば、血液検査の結果、だれがHIVに感染しているかは調査員にはわかりませんが、調査参加者は自分がHIVに感染しているか確認できる場合、looseな意味でこれもanonymous researchということになります。調査の段階で参加者各自にコードナンバーが振り当てられることで、調査参加者のみが自分のデータを確認できることになります。

If the person needs to follow up to retrieve his/her medical results or provide additional information, a unique identifier, such as a number, will be given.  In anonymous cases, the individual’s responses or results cannot be linked to his/her identity.

Anonymous testing means that nothing ties your test results to you. When you take an anonymous HIV test, you get a unique identifier that allows you to get your test results.

ちなみに医学関連以外では、調査で利用される個人情報は当人にはわかりきっていることばかりなので、後で本人が確認しなおす必要もないため、anonymous researchをlooseにする必要はとくにありません。

confidential

confidentialな調査では調査参加者の個人情報が提供され、調査実施者はその情報にアクセスができます。

Any time a person participates in a confidential test, research project, or crime investigation, the person will need to provide some personal information about himself/herself to whoever is conducting the test, project, or investigation.  Personal information may include a name, phone number, address, birthdate, and/or social security number.  This information is NOT to be given to anyone not involved in the project, testing site, or organization.

When participation is confidential, the research team knows that a particular individual has participated in the research but is obligated not to disclose that information to others outside the team, except as clearly noted in the consent document.

When data are confidential, there continues to be a link between the data and the individual who provided it. The research team is obligated to protect the data from disclosure outside the research according to the terms of the research protocol and the informed consent document.

そのため、confidentialな調査では研究者は調査参加者の個人情報が研究以外の目的に使用されないこと、外部に漏れないよう万全の注意を払うことなどを調査参加者に説明したうえで、参加同意書にサインを求めます。

There exists a documented linkage between a subject’s identity and his/her response in the research, and the investigator provides assurance in the protocol and in the informed consent form that the identity of any individual subject will not be revealed in any report of the study.  Confidential means that the investigator can (or could) identify individuals who participated in a study, perhaps through a code.

Not all studies can be anonymous. In the protocol, you need to justify why it is necessary to collect identifying information about an individual, include a list of identifiers that you will collect (with the understanding that you will not collect more identifiers than you need), describe how this information will be used and how it will be collected, and describe what you will do to destroy this information once it is no longer needed. The consent form should also include this information to help the participant understand how their information will be used and the consent form should also state who has access to their identifying information and their study data (usually phrased as “members of the research team”). Also, your consent form should be used to inform participants about your privacy and confidentiality policies.  You may wish to have two paragraphs in the consent form’s “confidentiality” section, one discussing your protection policies (i.e., how you will prevent information from being disclosed against the participant’s wishes) and one discussing disclosure policies (i.e., under what circumstances and to whom must information be disclosed).  For example, a breach of confidentiality may be required in cases of suspected abuse or if the participant is in imminent risk of harm to self or others. Research involving information about illegal behaviors may require a federal Certificate of Confidentiality, which protects against disclosure to law enforcement agencies and prevents records from being subpoenaed. Research that requires a Certificate of Confidentiality will also require additional information in the consent form.

注意点が2つあります。インタビューなどの定性調査(qualitative research)は常にconfidentialです。調査者が、ある特定の回答を誰がしたかわかるからです。

Confidential” research participation means that the data from the research subject(s) can potentially be identified or linked to a particular individual. Thus, any data collected face-to-face (consumer survey, focus groups, standing in front of a classroom, etc.) is automatically considered in the category of being “confidential” as opposed to “anonymous.” This is true even when the researcher assigns a coding number to the subject—and this number cannot be traced back to the subject—because the researcher him-/herself knows who provided the data.

2点目は、データがanonymousかつconfidentialでありうることはないということです。confidentialということは研究者はデータの個人情報にアクセスできるわけですから、それがanonymousなわけはありません。そうなると、最初に引用した赤字の文章の..., anonymous, and confidentialという表現はおかしいという事になります。anonymouであればconfidentialということにならないからです。

Most studies will include some amount of protection of the subjects, as “harm” may come from revealing certain information, e.g., medical records, beliefs, or even school transcripts. In such cases, the studies need to be designed as either “anonymous” or “confidential.” No study can be both. However, to be technical, a study may include two different modes of data collection – one an anonymous on-line survey and one a focus group interview – and so it could be described as both in this situation. That distinction is important when initially writing the protocol and then writing the materials and methods section of the thesis or published paper.

Research data to be collected by investigators is done either as anonymous data collection or as confidential data collection but cannot be both! Data that is collected as confidential data can be anonymized but the initial data collection is considered confidential and should be treated as such.

注: 赤色・紫色の英文はすべてインターネットから引用しています。引用先はGoogleで文章検索をすればすぐわかりますので興味のある方は確認してください。

10月 13, 2014 · Pukuro · No Comments
Posted in: ☆社会科学

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