ただでアメリカの大学の授業を受ける: (5) カリフォルニア大学バークレー校のwebcast.berkeley


Unlocking the Gates: How and Why Leading Universities Are Opening Up Access to Their Courses by Taylor Walsh (Princeton University Press, 2011)
Chapter 6  A Grassroots Initiative: webcast.berkeley より。

Unlocking the Gates

webcast.berkeley はカリフォルニア大学バークレー校が運営する無料オンライン講座のサイトです。



学生が教授の言葉を一語一句書き写すことばかりに専心して、授業の内容を理解しようとしないことに不満だったLawrence A. Rowe教授は、1995年1月に彼らが授業後も授業の内容を確認できるように自分が担当した大学院のゼミをインターネットに配信します。そのサイトはアクセス制限をせずに受講生以外も閲覧できるようにしました。アクセス制限するためのログイン・システムを構築するのが大変だったからです。その後、ネット配信された授業の数は1998年秋には7つ、1999年春には15まで増えます。2001年まではこのオープンコースウェアはロイ教授の管理下に置かれていましたが、2001年秋学期からはEducational Technology Servicesが運営することになります(pp.151-3)。

Lawrence A. Rowe

Severe resource constraints have clearly shaped Berkeley’s approach and led it to pioneer in the development of low-cost instructional materials that are helpful to students who cannot attend a lecture at the time it is given or simply value the convenience of studying the material online at whatever time and place suit them. (pp.ix-x)

Each element of Berkeley’s production process contributes to the initiative’s goal of “video at scale”—webcast.berkeley’s main value proposition and a key feature distinguishing it from other efforts in this space. Whereas programs like OYC have placed a premium on high production values and maintaining rigorous standards of excellence in the look and feel of course videos and podcasts, webcast.berkeley has tended to prioritize the quantity of courses it is able to publish over their appearance. Hancock has acknowledged this trade-off, saying that “our program came out of [the desire to] have a really high impact on a lot of people, and that means that sometimes you’re not really top quality, but opt for good-enough quality.” (pp.158-9)

The relative emphasis placed on production quality by Yale on the one hand and Berkeley (and the National Programme on Technology Enhanced Learning [NPTEL]) on the other is aligned with the programs’ different goals and intended audiences. Yale wants to represent the institution at its best on a world stage, necessitating a sophisticated look and feel for the courses, whereas Berkeley and NPTEL consider themselves primarily student services (Berkeley to its own students, NPTEL to engineering students throughout India), so the level of polish seems to be less important. (p.210)

With the exception of MIT OCW, no program profiled in this book covers its parent university’s entire undergraduate curriculum, and therefore choices must be made concerning which professors and courses to include in its online courseware initiative. Each institution has approached this selection process differently in accordance with its local goals and strategic priorities. As we have seen, the Carnegie Mellon faculty selected by the Open Learning Initiative (OLI) must have the time and inclination to serve on a course development team, as well as teach disciplines that are a good fit for the OLI’s mode of asynchronous digital pedagogy. At Yale, faculty asked to participate in OYC are renowned tenured professors who teach subjects of general interest to a wide public. Berkeley’s “selection process” is quite different, and largely out of the webcast team’s control: due to the reliance on automated technologies, only those professors who have been assigned by the registrar to teach in web- or podcast-enabled rooms are invited to participate in the initiative. (pp.155-6)

Berkeley professors have also reported that participating in the webcast program has enhanced their lecturing ability and improved the dynamic of the lectures, as students need not copy furiously when they know they can review lectures at their own pace. As Hubbard put it, “For students, it changes the way they engage in class—and faculty have told us that now they see faces, not the tops of people’s heads” during lectures. Professor Marian Diamond, who teaches a popular introductory anatomy course, said that she watches her own webcasts to “improve future lectures— because no one else will give you that feedback; you just keep making the same mistakes.”  (p.164)

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12月 25, 2015 · Pukuro · No Comments
Posted in: ■英語教材

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