ただでインドの大学の授業を受ける: インド工科大学のNPTEL

Pocket

Unlocking the Gates: How and Why Leading Universities Are Opening Up Access to Their Courses by Taylor Walsh (Princeton University Press, 2011)
Chapter 7  Closing the Gap in India: The National Programme on Technology Enhanced Learningより。

Unlocking the Gates

NPTELはインドが誇るオープンコースウェアです。

http://nptel.ac.in/

NPTEL

NPTELはNational Programme on Technology Enhanced Learningの略称です。インド政府の支援の下、7つのインド工科大学(the Indian Institutes of Technology [IITs])とインド理科大学(the Indian Institute of Science [IISc])の授業がインターネットに無料配信されています。

IITsとIIScはインドが誇る超エリート大学です。1961年のthe Institutes of Technology Actに基づき設立されました。IITsはインド国内の18ヵ所にあります。IITsは多額の教育予算を獲得し、学生の質も2~3%以下の合格率の入試試験をくぐり抜けただけあって非常に高いのですが、IITs以外の工科系大学の教育環境は非常に悪く、大学間の教育格差が問題となります。

その格差を埋めるための試みがNPTELです。NPTELを通じて、IITs以外の大学生もIITsの質の高い授業をインターネットを通じて受けることが可能になります。
NPTEL responds to a specific problem in Indian higher education: the widening gap in quality and resources between top universities like the IITs and the remainder of the country’s engineering education system. (p.178)

NPTEL’s target audience—students and faculty at other institutions of higher education in India—is built into the very premise of the project. Shevgaonkar said that the “usage goal was that we would like to make content available to the largest number of students and engineering aspirants in the country as possible,” creating a situation in which “no one would be deprived because they didn’t have access to good teachers—we have the teachers.” Though the student users are paramount in NPTEL’s envisioned audience, the project’s teacher training possibilities were also clear from the beginning. In India, “we have a very small ratio of good to average teachers,” Krishnan said, “so we thought we would also use these materials to train” teachers at institutions of lower quality than the IITs. (p.196)

インド高等教育の実情→Compared to the IITs, conditions at other institutions, where the majority of Indian higher education takes place, are far less favorable. A 2009 item in The Hindu describing the current state of engineering education in India said that “while several colleges have imposing buildings and state-of-the-art lab equipment to boast about, the appointment of inexperienced and undergraduate degree holders as teachers leaves a yawning gap between the desired level and the current level of expertise available among the faculty.” A 2008 report similarly declared that “one of the biggest constraints for the development of engineering education in the country is the shortage of quality faculty.” The IITs have much more favorable teacher-student ratios than the national average, and they employ instructors with PhDs to teach undergraduates, as is the case in American universities. In contrast, many of the private colleges boast very few PhDs on the faculty, and they allow instructors holding masters or even bachelors degrees to conduct most of the teaching. Researchers also find cause for concern in the fact that insufficient numbers of PhDs are awarded in India each year, which perpetuates the cycle of a shortage of trained teachers for the next generation of engineers. These factors have led to the fear, articulated by Vijay Kumar to the Chronicle of Higher Education, that for the vast majority of students not admitted to the competitive IITs, “the likelihood of them going to institutions where there are good faculty is slim.” (pp.180-1)

NPTELは1999年に初めて構想され、2003年7月から資金供与が始まり、授業のネット配信がスタートします。MITのOCWやカリフォルニア大学バークレー校のwebcast.berkeleyは同大学のキャンパスに通う学生向けに配信されましたが、NPTELという国家プロジェクトではインド国内のすべての工科大学の学生をターゲットにし、ネット講座の多くでビデオも配信されています。OCW、イェール大学のOYC、webcast.berkeleyで配信されているビデオはキャンパス内の実際の授業がとられたものですが、NPTELのビデオの多くはレコーディング・スタジオで撮影されています。2007年には239のコースと110のビデオが作成され、今も講座数は増えています。聴講者の大多数はインドの学生ですが、次に多いのはアメリカからのアクセスだそうです。

NPTELで配信される授業は以下の学科に分類されています。

Aerospace Engineering
Atmospheric Science
Basic Courses (Sem 1 and 2)
Biotechnology
Chemical Engineering
Chemical and Biochemistry
Civil Engineering
Computer Science and Engineering
Electrical Engineering
Electronics & Communication Engineering
Engineering Design
Environmental Science
General
Humanities and Social Sciences
Management
Mathematics
Mechanical Engineering
Metallurgy and Material Science
Mining Engineering
Nanotechnology
Ocean Engineering
Physics
Textile Engineering

http://nptel.ac.in/courses.php

で興味のある分野をクリックするとその分野の全クラスが掲示されます。TypeでVideoと書かれている講座で授業のビデオ視聴ができます。Course contentsをクリックするとビデオを見れますが、インドなまりの英語がよく聞き取れない場合はAvailableの欄にTという表示があるクラスを選んでください。英語字幕が出てきます。ビデオ講座はすべてYouTubeで見ることもできます(https://www.youtube.com/user/nptelhrd)。

工科大学用のオープンコースウェアだけあって、理系の授業ばかりですが、Humanities and Social Sciencesの分野では81の文系クラスが公開されています。その中でビデオ視聴できるものをリストアップしたので興味がある方は一度、視聴してみてください。

英語
Better Spoken English
Practical English: Learning and Teaching
Understanding Creativity and Creative Writing

語学
Communication Skills
English Language and Literature
Introduction to Modern Linguistics
Language and Mind
Language and Society
Principles and Parameters in Natural Language

哲学・倫理
Aspects of Western Philosophy
Indian Philosophy
Issues in Bioethics

論理学
Introduction to Logic

文学
Contemporary Literature
Literacy Criticism and Literary Theory

心理学
Brief Introduction to Psychology
Contemporary Issues in Philosophy of Mind & Cognition
Human Adjustment Processes
Selected Topics in Psychology

社会学
Cultural Studies
Introduction to Sociology
Population and Society

経済学
Game Theory and Economics
History of Economic Theory
International Economics
Macro Economics
Money & Banking
Infrastructure Economics

映画
Introduction to Film Studies
Film Appreciation

音楽
Appreciating Carnatic Music

芸術
Elements of Visual Representation

12月 29, 2015 · Pukuro · No Comments
Posted in: ■英語教材

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